History of Portugal

History of Portugal

domingo, 4 de abril de 2010

The Lusitania - Romanization

Romanization of Hispania or Iberia

Lusitanian Resistance 

Campaigns Viriato against the Romans in 147 BC opposes the surrender of the Lusitanian to Vetílio Caio, who had surrounded the valley of Betis in Turdetania. After he defeats the Romans in Ronda Gorge, which separates the plain of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia coastline, making the enemy ranks an astonishing slaughter, having been killed Vetílio. Then the Lusitianian destroy the troops of Cayo Plautius , taking Segóbriga and the Unimano Claudius , who in 146 BC was the governor of Hispania Citerior. In 145 BC the Lusitanians defeat the Roman troops of Caio Nigidius again. But after the death of Viriato the roman army have no more serious resistance and conquest Lusitania.

Maximum against Viriato
Praetorian Cavalry

In 145 BC Fabius Maximus, brother of Scipion "The African" is appointed consul in Hispania Citerior and is in charge of the campaign against Viriato  commanding two legions. has some success at first but Viriato recovers and returns 143-142 AC to defeat the Romans in Baecula and forces them to take refuge in Cordoba. 

Simultaneously, following the example of the chief Lusitanian tribes celtibéricas rebelled against Roman arrogance, sparking a fight that ended in 133 BC with the fall of Numancia.

Viriato now had an army depleted and tired of fighting. His star is erased. The new governor Fifth Servílio Scipion reinforced with the troops of Popílio Lenas, had vastly superior forces.Viriato was compelled to sue for peace, and deliver to the Romans the main rebels, among whom was Astolpas, his own father-in-law.

After the conquest was completed, the Romans gathered the indigenous peoples into jurisdictions, each with a Roman center of administration and justice. Olissipo (present-day Lisbon-- Lisboa in Portuguese), served as the administrative center of Roman Portugal until the founding of Emerita (present-day Mérida, Spain) in A.D. 25.

By the beginning of the first century A.D., Romanization was well underway in southern Portugal.

A senate was established at Ebora (present-day Évora); schools of Greek and Latin were opened; industries such as brick making, tile making, and iron smelting were developed; military roads and bridges were built to connect administrative centers; and monuments, such as the Temple of Diana in Évora, were erected.

Gradually, Roman civilization was extended to northern Portugal, as well. The Lusitanians were forced out of their hilltop fortifications and settled in bottom lands in Roman towns (citânias).

Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar and a very small southern part of France. Iberia was the name given by the Greeks.

Infantry of the Roman Army
The citânias

The citânias were one of the most important institutions imposed on Lusitania during the Roman occupation. It was in the citânias that the Lusitanians acquired Roman civilization: they learned Latin, the lingua franca of the peninsula and the basis of modern Portuguese; they were introduced to Roman administration and religion; and in the third century, when Rome converted to Christianity, so did the Lusitanians. All in all, the Roman occupation left a profound cultural, economic, and administrative imprint on the entire Iberian Peninsula that remains to the present day.

Citânia of Sanfins
Hispania was divided  in three Provinces in the times of August - Baetica, Tarraconensis, and Lusitania.

Road Map of the Roman Hispania

Romanization - The Romans exerted great influence on the lifestyle of the peninsular peoples .. Most of these people lived in settlements or citânias, organized into tribes and had a degree of rudimentary civilization. With the Romans, developed the cultivation of vines, wheat, olive and fruit trees.

New industries emerged and developed others such as pottery, forges, mines and salt fish. Released to the language and the Roman numerals. In summary, civilized up.

Also there are numerous ruins of towns, cities, monuments, aqueducts to supply water, fortifications, roads and bridges scattered throughout the Roman Portugal.

Roman bridge in Chaves (Aquae Flaviae in Roman times)

In the Iberian Peninsula, Romanization occurred concurrently with the achievement, having progressed from the Mediterranean coast to the interior and the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. For this process of acculturation were determining the expansion of Latin and the founding of several cities, with the agents, in principle, the legionaries and traders.

The first, when they mixed with native populations, constituted families by fixing their uses and customs, while the seconds were conditioned on economic life, in terms of production and consumption. Although there has been a homogeneous society in the peninsula during the six centuries of Romanization were recorded moments of development more or less pronounced, reducing undoubtedly ethnic differences of the primitive settlement.

Roman road
The industry has developed, especially the pottery, mining, weaving, quarrying, which also helped to develop trade, emerging markets and fairs, with the circulation of money and supported an extensive road network (the famous "Roman roads "that there are still many traces in the present) that connected the main centers throughout the Empire.

The Roman influence was felt also in religion and artistic manifestations. It was, therefore, a profound influence, especially the south, won first place.

The main actors were the mercenaries who came to the Peninsula, large military contingents Romans camped here, the action of some military chiefs, immigration from the Romans to the Peninsula, granting Roman citizenship.

The Latin language was eventually imposed as the official language, functioning as binding factor and communication between the various peoples. The villages, normally built in the mountains, began to emerge to the valleys or plains, dwelling houses of brick covered with tile. 

As examples of cities that have arisen with the Romans, we Braga (Bracara Augusta), Beja (Pax Iulia), Santiago de Setúbal (Miróbriga) Conímbriga and Chaves (Aquae Flaviae)

Lisbon, Portugal's capital was under Roman rule 614 years, from 205 BC to 409 AD. Julius Caesar gave him the dignity of  "mucipium" with the name of Felicitas Julia. In 409 AD it was conquered by the Alans, who were expelled by the Suevi and reconquered by the Visigoths.

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